Users and Permissions

Frappe comes with a user authentication system. It handles user accounts, role based permissions and cookie based user sessions.

User authentication system in Frappe comes with a lot of features out of the box:

  1. User

  2. Role

  3. DocType Permissions

  4. Permission Level

  5. Role Permission Manager

  6. User Permissions

  7. Restricting Views and Forms

  8. Password Hashing

  9. Password strength checking

  10. Throttling of login attempts

  11. Third party authentication like OAuth, Google, Facebook, etc

User and Role

A User record represents an authenticated user who can perform authorized actions in the system. A User can have multiple roles assigned to it. A Role describes what actions a User can perform on a DocType.

User Roles User Roles

For example, the role Blogger has read, write and create permission on the doctype Blog Post, but only read permission on Blog Category.

Role Blogger Role Blogger

DocType Permissions

DocTypes can have a default set of Roles applied when you install your app. To configure roles for a DocType you must add them in the Permissions table in DocType.

DocType Permissions DocType Permissions

If you expand the row, you will see many more options that can be configured. DocType Permissions Row DocType Permissions

Here is a list of them with their explanation:




Permission Level assigned to this role

If the user is owner

The restrictions will apply only if the user is the one who created that document


Allow read access to the document


Allow edit access to the document


Allow create access to the document


Allow user to delete the document


Allow user to submit the document


Allow user to cancel the document


Allow user to amend the document


Allow user to view the report view


Allow user to export records in Excel/CSV


Allow user to import records using the Data Import Tool

Set User Permissions

Allow user to apply user permissions for other users


Allow user to share the document with other users


Allow user to print the document or generate PDF


Allow user to send emails for that document

Permission Level

Permission Levels can be used to group fields in a document and apply separate roles to each level. By default all fields have permlevel set as 0.

Permission Level Permission Level

Role Permissions Manager

Role Permissions Manager is a user tool to manage role permissions. The default set of permissions show up here and can be overridden.

Role Permissions Manager

User Permissions

User Permissions are another set of rules that can be applied per user basis. It can be used to restrict documents which contain a specific value for a Link field.

For example, to restrict the User John such that he can only view Blog Posts that were created by him, i.e, Blogger John. A user permission record with the following values should be created.

User Permissions Example User Permission Record

After creating the user permission configuration, when the User logs in to see the Blog Post list, he will have a restricted view of blog posts that were created by him.

Restricted Blog Post List Restricted Blog Post List

Automatic Roles

Certain roles are automatically hidden to users, this simplifies writing doctypes that need catch-all permissions. Following are automatic roles:

  1. "Guest" - This role is allocated to everyone, including unauthenticated users.

  2. "All"- This role is allocated to all registered users. This includes website users.

  3. "Administrator" - This role is only allocated to Administrator user that is created by default.

  4. "Desk User" - [New in v15] This role is allocated to all users whose user type is "System User" i.e. they are system users and not website users.

Restricting Views and Forms

Frappe Framework allows you to configure what modules, doctypes and views are visible to the user. To configure which modules are shown to a user go to the Allow Modules section of the User form.

Allow Modules in User

To hide a doctype from a User, remove the read permission from a Role using the Role Permissions Manager.

To control permissions for Pages and Reports, use the Role Permission for Page and Report tool.

Role Permission for Page and Report

Password Hashing

Frappe handles password hashing out of the box. They are encrypted and saved in a separate database table named __Auth.

MariaDB [_baa0f26509a564b6]> select * from __Auth;
| doctype | name             | fieldname | password
| User    | Administrator    | password  | $pbkdf2-sha256$29000$Xss5pxSC8F5rDSHEOEdo7Q$in
| User    | | password  | $pbkdf2-sha256$29000$y7mXMoZQau09RwiBsLaWsg$h.

Password Policy

Frappe also supports password strength checking. It can be enabled from System Settings in the Security section. The Minimum Password Score field validates how strong the password should be.

Password Policy Password Policy

Login Attempts

Frappe allows you to configure how many consecutive login attempts should be allowed before locking the account for a set time period.

Login Attempts

Third Party Authentication

Frappe supports third party login providers. To setup a login provider you need to setup a Social Login Key. Learn more about it here.